Viscosity of nanofluids containing anisotropic particles: A critical review and a comprehensive model
School of Energy Power and Mechanical Engineering, North China Electric Power University, 071003, Baoding, China
2 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Rochester Institute of Technology, 14623, Rochester, NY, USA
Accepted: 29 November 2019
Published online: 24 December 2019
Compared to nanofluids with spherical particles, nanofluids with anisotropic particles possess higher thermal conductivity and present a better enhancement option in heat transfer applications. The viscosity variation of such nanofluids becomes of great importance in evaluating their pumping power in thermal systems. This paper presents a comprehensive review of the experimental and theoretical studies on the viscosity of nanofluids with anisotropic particles. The internal mechanisms of viscosity evolution are investigated considering three aspects: particle clustering, particle interactions, and Brownian motion. In experimental studies, important factors including classification and synthetic methods for particle preparation, base fluid, particle loading, particle shape and size, temperature, p H, shear stress and electric field are investigated in detail. Classical theoretical models and empirical relations of the effective viscosity of suspensions are discussed. Some crucial factors such as maximum particle packing fraction, fractal index and intrinsic viscosity models, are examined. A comparison of predictions and experimental results shows that the classical models underestimate suspension viscosity. A comprehensive combination of the modified Krieger-Dougherty (K-D) model with intrinsic viscosity relations for different aspect ratios is suggested for low particle loadings, and the modified Maron-Pierce model (M-D) is recommended for high particle loadings. Possible directions for future works are discussed.
Key words: Flowing Matter: Liquids and Complex Fluids
© EDP Sciences / Società Italiana di Fisica / Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature, 2019