Regular Article - Flowing Matter
Evolution of channel flow and Darcy’s law beyond the critical Reynolds number
Department of Physics, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China
Accepted: 3 April 2023
Published online: 30 May 2023
For incompressible channel flow, there is a critical state, characterized by a critical Reynolds number Rec and a critical wavevector mc along the channel direction, beyond which the channel flow becomes unstable in the linear regime. In this work, we investigate the channel flow beyond the critical state and find the existence of a new fluctuating, quasi-stationary flow that comprises the laminar Poiseuille flow superposed with a counter-flow component, accompanied by vortices and anti-vortices. The net flow rate is reduced by ~ 15% from the linear, laminar regime. Our study is facilitated by the analytical solution of the linearized, incompressible, three-dimensional (3D) Navier–Stokes (NS) equation in the channel geometry, with the Navier boundary condition, alternatively denoted as the hydrodynamic modes (HMs). By using the HMs as the complete mathematical basis for expanding the velocity in the NS equation, the Rec is evaluated to 5-digit accuracy when compared to the well-known Orszag result, without invoking the standard Orr-Sommerfeld equation. Beyond Rec, the analytical solution is indispensable in offering physical insight to those features of the counter-flow component that differs from any of the pressure-driven channel flows. In particular, the counter flow is found to comprise multiple HMs, some with opposite flow direction, that can lead to a net boundary reaction force along the counter-flow direction. The latter is analyzed to be necessary for satisfying Newton’s law. Experimental verification of the predictions is discussed.
© The Author(s) 2023. corrected publication 2023
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