Surface swimmers, harnessing the interface to self-propel
GRASP, Université de Liège, Allée du 6 Aot 19, 4000, Liège, Belgium
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Accepted: 26 October 2018
Published online: 26 November 2018
In the study of microscopic flows, self-propulsion has been particularly topical in recent years, with the rise of miniature artificial swimmers as a new tool for flow control, low Reynolds number mixing, micromanipulation or even drug delivery. It is possible to take advantage of interfacial physics to propel these microrobots, as demonstrated by recent experiments using the proximity of an interface, or the interface itself, to generate propulsion at low Reynolds number. This paper discusses how a nearby interface can provide the symmetry breaking necessary for propulsion. An overview of recent experiments illustrates how forces at the interface can be used to generate locomotion. Surface swimmers ranging from the microscopic scale to typically the capillary length are covered. Two systems are then discussed in greater detail. The first is composed of floating ferromagnetic spheres that assemble through capillarity into swimming structures. Two previously studied configurations, triangular and collinear, are discussed and contrasted. A new interpretation for the triangular swimmer is presented. Then, the non-monotonic influence of surface tension and viscosity is evidenced in the collinear case. Finally, a new system is introduced. It is a magnetically powered, centimeter-sized piece that swims similarly to water striders.
Key words: Topical issue: Flowing Matter, Problems and Applications
© EDP Sciences, SIF, Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature, 2018