Plasticity and dynamical heterogeneity in driven glassy materials
Laboratoire de Physique de la Matière Condensée et Nanostructures, CNRS, Université de Lyon, Université Lyon I, 69622, Villeurbanne, France
Accepted: 2 June 2010
Published online: 2 July 2010
Many amorphous glassy materials exhibit complex spatio-temporal mechanical response and rheology, characterized by an intermittent stress strain response and a fluctuating velocity profile. Under quasistatic and athermal deformation protocols this heterogeneous plastic flow was shown to be composed of plastic events of various sizes, ranging from local quadrupolar plastic rearrangements to system spanning shear bands. In this paper, through numerical study of a 2D Lennard-Jones amorphous solid, we generalize the study of the heterogeneous dynamics of glassy materials to the finite shear rate ( 0 and temperature case (T 0 . In practice, we choose an effectively athermal limit (T ∼ 0 and focus on the influence of shear rate on the rheology of the glass. In line with previous works we find that the model Lennard-Jones glass follows the rheological behavior of a yield stress fluid with a Herschel-Bulkley response of the form, = + c 1 . The global mechanical response obtained through the use of Molecular Dynamics is shown to converge in the limit 0 to the quasistatic limit obtained with an energy minimization protocol. The detailed analysis of the plastic deformation at different shear rates shows that the glass follows different flow regimes. At sufficiently low shear rates the mechanical response reaches a shear-rate-independent regime that exhibits all the characteristics of the quasistatic response (finite-size effects, cascades of plastic rearrangements, yield stress, ...). At intermediate shear rates the rheological properties are determined by the externally applied shear rate and the response deviates from the quasistatic limit. Finally at higher shear the system reaches a shear-rate-independent homogeneous regime. The existence of these three regimes is also confirmed by the detailed analysis of the atomic motion. The computation of the four-point correlation function shows that the transition from the shear-rate-dominated to the quasistatic regime is accompanied by the growth of a dynamical cooperativity length scale that is shown to diverge with shear rate as , with ∼ 0.2 -0.3. This scaling is compared with the prediction of a simple model that assumes the diffusive propagation of plastic events.
© EDP Sciences, SIF, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, 2010